VCPR by State

This quick-reference guide lists each state’s VCPR (veterinarian client-patient relationship) regulations, and provides guidance to veterinarians how they can utilize TeleVet for conducting virtual visits.

In most cases, veterinarians can offer general advice (e.g., nutrition or training recommendations), first aid advice, triage patients, and assist in medical emergencies without VCPR. However, to diagnose a patient or to prescribe drugs, VCPR is required.

StateLink to Practice ActVCPR must be established in-personScope of VCPRWhere telemedicine occursBrief Summary of Guidelines/Restrictions
AlabamaAlabama Practice ActYesOne vetWhere the client/animal isVCPR must be established in-person. Telemedicine is defined by where the owner/animal is, regardless of where the veterinarian is (i.e. a vet must be licensed in AL and have VCPR to treat an animal in AL).
AlaskaAlaska Practice ActNoNot definedNot definedAlaska does not define VCPR in its Practice Act. However, to be conservative, utilize the general guideline of establishing VCPR with in-person visits at least annually
ArizonaArizona Practice ActYesAny vet at same practiceNot definedVCPR must be established in-person but VCPR can apply to any vet working at the same practice
ArkansasArkansas Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
CaliforniaCalifornia Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedCalifornia has one of the strictest regulations for telemedicine. VCPR must be established in-person and is only applicable to one veterinarian. Additionally, telemedicine can only be used for specific medical conditions for which the animal has already been diagnosed by the veterinarian during an in-person exam.
ColoradoColorado Practice ActYesOne vetWhere the client/animal isVCPR must be established by an in-person examination and only applies to one veterinarian. Colorado defines telemedicine as taking place where the animal is (i.e., a vet must be licensed in CO and have VCPR to treat an animal in CO)
ConnecticutConnecticut Practice ActNoNot definedNot definedConnecticut does not define VCPR in its Practice Act. However, to be conservative, utilize the general guideline of establishing VCPR with in-person visits at least annually
DelawareDelaware Practice ActNoNot definedNot definedDelaware does not define VCPR in its Practice Act. However, to be conservative, utilize the general guideline of establishing VCPR with in-person visits at least annually
District of ColumbiaDistrict of Columbia Practice ActNoNot definedNot definedD.C. does not define VCPR in its Practice Act. However, to be conservative, utilize the general guideline of establishing VCPR with in-person visits at least annually
FloridaFlorida Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
GeorgiaGeorgia Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
HawaiiHawaii Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedHawaii has guidelines regarding establishing VCPR but these are not legally binding, although it is recommended to follow the guidelines. VCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one vet.
IdahoIdaho Practice ActYesOne vetWhere the client/animal isVCPR must be established by an in-person examination at least annually and only applies to one vet. Telemedicine is defined by where the owner/animal is, regardless of where the veterinarian is (i.e., a vet must be licensed in ID and have VCPR to treat an animal in ID).
IllinoisIllinois Practice ActYesAny vet at same practiceWhere the client/animal isVCPR must be established by an in-person examination but aplies to any veterinarian at the same practice. Telemedicine is defined by where the owner/animal is, regardless of where the veterinarian is (i.e., a vet must be licensed in IL and have VCPR to treat an animal in IL) unless there is an existing VCPR.
IndianaIndiana Practice ActYesAny vet at same practiceNot definedVCPR must be established in-person but VCPR can apply to any vet working at the same practice
IowaIowa Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
KansasKansas Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
KentuckyKentucky Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
LouisianaLouisiana Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
MaineMaine Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
MarylandMaryland Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
MassachusettsMassachusetts Practice ActYesAny vet at same practiceNot definedVCPR must be established in-person but VCPR can apply to any vet working at the same practice
MichiganMichigan Practice ActNoNot definedNot definedMichigan rescinded the definition of VCPR in its Practice Act in 2019. However, to be conservative, utilize the general guideline of establishing VCPR with in-person visits at least annually
MinnesotaMinnesota Practice ActYesAny vet at same practiceNot definedAny DVM within 18 months
MississippiMississippi Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
MissouriMissouri Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
MontanaMontana Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
NebraskaNebraska Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
NevadaNevada Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
New HampshireNew Hampshire Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
New JerseyNew Jersey Practice ActYesOne vetWhere the vet isNew Jersey has legislature for telemedicine that has been approved but not yet adopted (as of June 2020). Currently, VCPR must be established in-person, but the new guidelines may allow for VCPR to be established remotely as long as there is not a Schedule II drug being prescribed. The new legislature defines telemedicine as taking place where the veterinarian physically is (e.g., a vet licensed in NJ can have a telemedicine consult with a client in another state without being licensed in that state).
New MexicoNew Mexico Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
New YorkNew York Practice ActYesAny vet at same practiceNot definedNew York has guidelines regarding establishing VCPR/telemedicine but clearly states that these are not legally binding, although it is recommended to follow the guidelines. VCPR must be established in-person but can apply to any veterinarian at the same practice.
North CarolinaNorth Carolina Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
North DakotaNorth Dakota Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
OhioOhio Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
OklahomaOklahoma Practice ActNoOne vetWhere the client/animal isOklahoma has more guidelines than most states regarding telemedicine. Although ideally VCPR is established in-person, it can be established remotely in some situations (vets should use professional judgment to determine if it is appropriate or not to establish VCPR via telemedicine). Vets cannot prescribe drugs unless the VCPR is established in-person.
OregonOregon Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Practice ActYesAny vet at same practiceNot definedVCPR must be established in-person but VCPR can apply to any vet working at the same practice
Puerto RicoPuerto Rico Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
Rhode IslandRhode Island Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
South CarolinaSouth Carolina Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
South DakotaSouth Dakota Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
TennesseeTennessee Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
TexasTexas Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
UtahUtah Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
VermontVermont Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
VirginiaVirginia Practice ActNoAny vet at same practiceNot definedVCPR may be established via telemedicine as long as there is a real-time, face-to-face interaction. VCPR can apply to any vet working at the same practice.
WashingtonWashington Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
West VirginiaWest Virginia Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
WisconsinWisconsin Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian
WyomingWyoming Practice ActYesOne vetNot definedVCPR must be established in-person and only applies to one veterinarian